Advanced gastric cancer and gastroesophageal junction cancers are highly aggressive cancers with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. The VEGF pathway has been one of the key signaling pathways under investigation for these cancers.
A new generation of agents that target androgen synthesis and AR signaling have provided proof of concept and robust data to support the hypothesis that the androgen pathway remains an important factor throughout the treatment of CRPC.
Increasing efficacy with cancer vaccines, oncolytic viruses, and checkpoint inhibitors in clinical trials led to immunotherapy, as a whole, being deemed Breakthrough of the Year by Science magazine in 2013.
The RAS-RAF-MEK-extracellular signalâ€“regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) pathway is the most mutated pathway in human cancer. Thus, components of this pathway have been seen as promising targets for cancer therapy.