Evolving Paradigms In Bladder Cancer: Conclusion and References

Evolving ParadigmsBladder Cancer
Volume 1
Issue 1

This is the "Conclusion and References" section of the current issue of Evolving Paradigms In Bladder Cancer.

Bladder cancer affects thousands of people in the United States. While treatable, many bladder cancers recur and require additional procedures and/or treatment regimens. There are many clinical trials focused on improving treatment options for patients with bladder cancer, and particular emphasis is being placed upon discovering treatments for patients with recurrent bladder cancer. While no new treatments have been approved for bladder cancer in over 10 years, molecular profiling of tumors, which has proven beneficial for improving treatment strategies in several different tumor types, is likely to unveil novel biomarkers that may be targeted in bladder cancer patients.

Several clinical trials are currently in progress to identify biomarkers for the detection of bladder cancer and the likelihood of disease recurrence.104-109The results of these studies, as well as those of ongoing therapeutic clinical trials, are eagerly anticipated by physicians and patients alike and will hopefully advance bladder cancer therapeutics and patient outcomes.


  1. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Cancer Statistics Fact Sheets. Bladder Cancer. http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/urinb.html. Accessed January 10, 2016.
  2. Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2016. CA Cancer J Clin. 2016 Jan 7. [Epub ahead of print].
  3. Green D, Shariat SF. Bladder tumors: molecular aspects and clinical management. BJU Int. 2011;108(7):E163-E163.
  4. Prout GR, Barton BA, Griffin PP, Friedell GH. Treated history of noninvasive grade 1 tran sitional cell carcinoma. The National Bladder Cancer Group. J Urol. 1992;148(5):1413-1419.
  5. Knollman H, Godwin JL, Jain R, Wong YN, Plimack ER, Geynisman DM. Muscle-invasive urothelial bladder cancer: an update on systemic therapy. Ther Adv Urol. 2015;7(6):312-30.
  6. American Cancer Society. What is bladder cancer? http://www.cancer.org/cancer/bladder-cancer/detailedguide/bladder-cancer-what-is-bladder-cancer. Accessed September 30, 2014.
  7. Bjerregaard BK, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Sørensen M, et al. Tobacco smoke and bladder cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. International J Cancer.2006;119(10):2412-2416.
  8. Zeegers MP, Tan FE, Dorant E, van Den Brandt PA. The impact of characteristics of cigarette smoking on urinary tract cancer risk: a metaanalysis of epidemiologic studies. Cancer. 2000;89(3):630-639.
  9. Cancer Treatment Centers of America. Bladder cancer risk factors. http://www.cancercenter.com/bladder-cancer/risk-factors/. Accessed September 30, 2014.
  10. MD Anderson Cancer Center. Bladder cancer prevention and screening. http://www.mdanderson.org/patient-and-cancer-information/cancer-information/cancer-types/ bladder- cancer/prevention/index.html. Accessed September 30, 2014.
  11. Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network. Understanding bladder cancer. http://www.bcan.org/ learn/understanding-bladder-cancer/. Accessed September 30, 2014.
  12. Yee DS, Ishill NM, Herr HW, Elkin EB. Ethnic differences in bladder cancer survival. Urology. 2011;78(3):544-549.
  13. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Bladder Cancer. Version 2.2015. http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/ bladder.pdf. Accessed January 10, 2016.
  14. The James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute. Bladder cancer: screening and diagnosis. http://urology.jhu.edu/bladder/bladder_cancer_diagnosis.php. Accessed September 30, 2014.
  15. Cancer Treatment Centers of America. Cystoscopy for bladder cancer. http://www. cancer- center.com/bladder-cancer/cytoscopy/. Accessed McNeil BK, Ekwenna OO, Getzenberg RH. Moleclar signatures of bladder cancer. In: Bladder Tumors: Molecular Aspects and Clinical Management.2011:105-119.
  16. Black PC, Brown GA, Dinney CP. Molecular markers of urothelial cancer and their use in the monitoring of superficial urothelial cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24(35):5528-5235.
  17. Sarosdy MF, Hudson MA, Ellis WJ, et al. Improved detection of recurrent bladder cancer using the Bard BTA stat Test. Urology.1997;50(3):349-353.
  18. Malkowicz SB. The application of human complement factor H-related protein (BTA TRAK) in monitoring patients with bladder cancer. Urol Clin North Am.2000;27(1):63-73, ix. Fradet
  19. Y, Lockhard C. Performance characteristics of a new monoclonal antibody test for bladder cancer: ImmunoCyt trademark. Canadian J Urol.1997;4(3):400-405.
  20. Messing EM, Teot L, Korman H, et al. Performance of urine test in patients monitored for recurrence of bladder cancer: a multicenter study in the United States. J Urol.2005;174(4 Pt 1):1238-1241.
  21. Mian C, Lodde M, Comploj E, et al. The value of the ImmunoCyt/uCyt+ test in the detection and follow-up of carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder. Anticancer Res. 2005;(5):3641- 3644.
  22. Têtu B, Tiguert R, Harel F, Fradet Y. ImmunoCyt/uCyt+ improves the sensitivity of urine cytology in patients followed for urothelial carcinoma. Mod Pathol. 2005;18(1):83-89.
  23. Vriesema JL, Atsma F, Kiemeney LA, Peelen WP, Witjes JA, Schalken JA. Diagnostic ef- ficacy of the ImmunoCyt test to detect superficial bladder cancer recurrence. Urology. 2001;58(3):367-371.
  24. Stec AA, Cookson MS, Chang SS. Detection of extravesical disease: a lack of bladder cancer markers. In: Bladder Cancer: Diagnosis, Therapeutics, and Management; 2010:59-70.
  25. Skacel M, Fahmy M, Brainard JA, et al. Multitarget fluorescence in situ hybridization assay detects transitional cell carcinoma in the majority of patients with bladder cancer and atypical or negative urine cytology. J Urol. 2003;169(6):2101-2105.
  26. Yoder BJ, Skacel M, Hedgepeth R, et al. Reflex UroVysion testing of bladder cancer surveillance patients with equivocal or negative urine cytology: a prospective study with focus on the natural history of anticipatory positive findings. Am J Clin Pathol. 2007;127(2):295-301.
  27. MD Anderson Cancer Center. Bladder cancer diagnosis. http://www.mdanderson.org/ patient-and-cancer-information/cancer-information/cancer-types/bladder-cancer/diagnosis/ index.html. Accessed September 30, 2014.
  28. Action on Bladder Cancer. Grading and staging of bladder cancer: how aggressive is my tumour? http://www.actiononbladdercancer.org/content.php?id=159g=2/Types. Accessed September 30, 2014.
  29. National Cancer Institute. What you need to know about bladder cancer: treatment. http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/wyntk/bladder/page8. Accessed September 30, 2014.
  30. The James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute. Bladder cancer: treatments. http://urology. jhu.edu/bladder/bladder_cancer_treatments.php. Accessed September 30, 2014.
  31. American Cancer Society. Intravesical therapy for bladder cancer. http://www.cancer.org/ cancer/bladdercancer/detailedguide/bladder-cancer-treating-intravesical-therapy. Accessed September 30, 2014.
  32. National Cancer Institute. Bladder cancer treatment: treatment option overview. http:// www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/bladder/Patient/page4#Keypoint20. Accessed September 30, 2014.
  33. National Cancer Institute. Bladder cancer treatment: treatment options by stage. http:// www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/bladder/Patient/page5. Accessed September 30, 2014.
  34. Habuchi T. Prognostic markers for bladder cancer. In: Bladder Tumors: Molecular Aspects and Clinical Management. 2011:139-163.
  35. Inman BA, Sebo TJ, Frigola X, et al. PD-L1 (B7-H1) expression by urothelial carcinoma of the bladder and BCG-induced granulomata: associations with localized stage progression. Cancer. 2007;109(8):1499-1505.
  36. Boorjian SA, Sheinin Y, Crispen PL, et al. T-cell coregulatory molecule expression in urothelial cell carcinoma: clinicopathologic correlations and association with survival. Clin Cancer Res.2008;14(15):4800-4808.
  37. Nakanishi J, Wada Y, Matsumoto K, Azuma M, Kikuchi K, Ueda S. Overexpression of B7-H1 (PD-L1) significantly associates with tumor grade and postoperative prognosis in human urothelial cancers. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2007;56(8):1173-1182.
  38. Wang Y, Zhuang Q, Zhou S, Hu Z, Lan R. Costimulatory molecule B7-H1 on the immune escape of bladder cancer and its clinical significance. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2009;29(1):77-79.
  39. Xylinas E, Robinson BD, Kluth LA, et al. Association of T-cell co-regulatory protein ex pression with clinical outcomes following radical cystectomy for urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2014;40(1):121-127.
  40. Clinicaltrials.gov. A Phase 1 Study of atezolizumab (an engineered anti-PDL1 antibody) in patients with locally advanced or metastatic solid tumors. https://ClinicalTrials.gov/show/ NCT01375842. Accessed January 11, 2016.
  41. Powles T, Vogelzang NJ, Fine GD, et al. Inhibition of PD-L1 by MPDL3280A and clinical activity in pts with metastatic urothelial bladder cancer (UBC). J Clin Oncol. 2014;32(5s). Abstract 5011.
  42. Clinicaltrials.gov. A study of stezolizumab in patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial bladder cancer [IMvigor210]. https://ClinicalTrials.gov/show/NCT02108652. Accessed January 11, 2016.
  43. Hoffman-Censits J, Grivas P, Van der Heijden MS, et al. IMvigor 210, a phase 2 trial of atezolizumab (MPDL3280A) in platinum-treated locally-advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC). J Clin Oncol 2016;34:(suppl 2S; abstr 355).
  44. Myers-Irvin JM, Van Le T-S, Getzenberg RH. Mechanistic analysis of the role of BLCA-4 in bladder cancer pathobiology. Cancer Res. 2005;65(16):7145-7150.
  45. Cong Y-S, Wright WE, Shay JW. Human telomerase and its regulation. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2002;66(3):407-425.
  46. Zachos I, Konstantinopoulos PA, Vandoros GP, et al. Predictive value of telomerase reverse transcriptase expression in patients with high risk superficial bladder cancer treated with adjuvant BCG immunotherapy. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2009;135(9):1169-1175.
  47. Smith SD, Wheeler MA, Plescia J, Colberg JW, Weiss RM, Altieri DC. Urine detection of survivin and diagnosis of bladder cancer. JAMA. 2001;285(3):324-328.
  48. Shariat SF, Casella R, Khoddami SM, et al. Urine detection of survivin is a sensitive marker for the noninvasive diagnosis of bladder cancer. J Urol. 2004;171(2, pt 1):626-630.
  49. Davies B, Chen J, Modugno F, et al. Contribution of the prostate limits the usefulness of survivin for the detection of bladder cancer. J Urol. 2005;174(5):1767-1770. als
  50. di Martino E, Tomlinson DC, Knowles MA. A decade of FGF receptor research in bladder cancer: past, present, and future challenges. Adv Urol. 2012;2012:429213.
  51. Kanayama H, Yokota K, Kurokawa Y, Murakami Y, Nishitani M, Kagawa S. Prognostic values of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 expression in bladder cancer. Cancer. 1998;82(7):1359-1366.
  52. Gohji K, Fujimoto N, Ohkawa J, Fujii A, Nakajima M. Imbalance between serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 and its inhibitor as a predictor of recurrence of urothelial cancer. Br J Cancer. 1998;77(4):650-655.
  53. Gallagher DJ, Milowsky MI, Gerst SR, et al. Phase II study of sunitinib in patients with metastatic urothelial cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(8):1373-1379.
  54. Clinicaltrials.gov. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin followed by sunitinib for the treatment of high risk non-muscle invasive lower urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (Sutent). http:// clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00794950?term=bladder+cancer+AND+Sunitinib&ra nk=10. Accessed October 1, 2014.
  55. Clinicaltrials.gov. Cabozantinib for advanced urothelial cancer. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ ct2/ show/NCT01688999. Accessed October 1, 2014.
  56. Clinicaltrials.gov. Cabozantinib plus nivolumab (CaboNivo) alone or in combination with ipilimumab (CaboNivoIpi) in patients with advanced/metastatic urothelial carcinoma and other genitourinary tumors. https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02496208. Accessed January 11, 2016.
  57. Clinicaltrials.gov. Phase II pazopanib in combination with weekly paclitaxel in refractory urothelial cancer. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01108055. Accessed October 1, 2014.
  58. Srinivas S, Narayanan S, Harshman LC, et al. Phase II study of pazopanib with weekly paclitaxel in refractory urothelial cancer. J Clin Oncol 2015; 33:(suppl 7; abstr 294)
  59. Clinicaltrials.gov. Alisertib in chemotherapy-pretreated urothelial cancer. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02109328. Accessed October 1, 2014.
  60. Clinicaltrials.gov. Erlotinib hydrochloride in treating patients with bladder cancer undergoing surgery. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02169284. Accessed October 1, 2014.
  61. Clinicaltrials.gov. Afatinib in advanced refractory urothelial cancer. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02122172. Accessed October 1, 2014.
  62. Clinicaltrials.gov. Dovitinib in BCG refractory urothelial carcinoma with FGFR3 mutations or overexpression. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01732107. Accessed October 1, 2014.
  63. Petrylak DP, Tagawa ST, Kohli M. Interim results of a randomized phase 2 study of docetaxel with ramucirumab versus docetaxel in second-line advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 2015;33:(suppl 7; abstr 295)
  64. Clinicaltrials.gov. A Study of Ramucirumab (LY3009806) Plus docetaxel in participants with urothelial cancer. https://ClinicalTrials.gov/show/NCT02426125. Accessed January 11, 2016.
  65. Clinicaltrials.gov. A study of ramucirumab plus pembrolizumab in participants with gastric or GEJ adenocarcinoma, NSCLC or transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium. https://ClinicalTrials.gov/show/NCT02443324. Accessed January 11, 2016.
  66. Wagle N, Grabiner BC, Van Allen EM, et al. Activating mTOR mutations in a patient with an extraordinary response on a phase I trial of everolimus and pazopanib. Cancer Discov. 2014;4(5):546-53.
  67. Clinicaltrials.gov. First-line everolimus +/- paclitaxel for cisplatin-ineligible patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01215136. Accessed January 11, 2016.
  68. Clinicaltrials.gov. Gemcitabine and split-dose cisplatin plus everolimus (RAD001) in patients with advanced solid tumor malignancies. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01182168. Accessed January 11, 2016.
  69. Clinicaltrials.gov. RAD001 and intravesical gemcitabine in BCG-refractory primary or sec- ondary carcinoma in situ of the bladder. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/ NCT01259063. Accessed January 11, 2016.
  70. Clinicaltrials.gov. Phase II Evaluating Efficacy of Temsirolimus in 2 Line Therapy for Patients With Advanced Bladder Cancer (VESTOR). http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/ NCT01827943. Accessed January 11, 2016.
  71. Houede N, Roubaud, Mahammedi H, et al. Safety and efficacy of temsirolimus as second-line treatment for patients with recurrent bladder cancer. J Clin Oncol 2015;33:(suppl 7; abstr 304).
  72. Clinicaltrials.gov. Phase 1/2 Study of ABI-009 in Nonmuscle Invasive Bladder Cancer. https://ClinicalTrials.gov/show/NCT02009332. Accessed January 11, 2016.
  73. Chen DS, Mellman I. Oncology meets immunology: the cancer-immunity cycle. Immunity. 2013;39:1-10.
  74. Clinicaltrials.gov. First-line gemcitabine, cisplatin + ipilimumab for metastatic urothelial carcinoma. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01524991. Accessed October 1, 2014.
  75. Galsky MD, Hahn NM, Albany C, et al. Phase II trial of gemcitabine + cisplatin + ipilimumab in patients with metastatic urothelial cancer. J Clin Oncol 2016;34:(suppl 2S; abstr 357).
  76. Rosenberg J, Petrylak D, Abidoye O, et al. Atezolizumab in patients (pts) with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC): results from a pivotal multicenter phase II study (IMvigor 210). Paper presented at: European Cancer Congress (ECC) 2015; September 25-29, 2015; Vienna, Austria. Abstract 21LBA.
  77. Clinicaltrials.gov. A study of atezolizumab compared with chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial bladder cancer [IMvigor211]. https://ClinicalTrials. gov/show/NCT02302807. Accessed January 7, 2016.
  78. Clinicaltrials.gov. A phase III study of atezolizumab treatment versus observation as adju- vant therapy in patients with PD-L1 positive, high risk muscle invasive bladder cancer after cystectomy [IMvigor010]. https://ClinicalTrials.gov/show/NCT02450331. Accessed January 7, 2016.
  79. Clinicaltrials.gov. An expanded access study of atezolizumab in patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma after failure with platinum-containing chemo- therapy. https://ClinicalTrials.gov/show/NCT02589717. Accessed January 7, 2016.
  80. Clinicaltrials.gov. A study of nivolumab in participants with metastatic or unresectable blad- der cancer. https://ClinicalTrials.gov/show/NCT02387996. Accessed January 7, 2016.
  81. Clinicaltrials.gov. A Phase 1/2, Open-label study of nivolumab monotherapy or nivolumab combined with ipilimumab in subjects with advanced or metastatic solid tumors. http:// clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01928394. Accessed January 7, 2016.
  82. Plimack ER, Bellmunt J, Gupta S, et al. Pembrolizumab (MK-3475) for advanced urothelial cancer: Updated results and biomarker analysis from KEYNOTE-012. J Clin Oncol 2015; 33:(suppl; abstr 4502).
  83. Clinicaltrials.gov. A study of pembrolizumab (MK-3475) versus paclitaxel, docetaxel, or vinflunine for participants with advanced urothelial cancer (MK-3475-045/KEYNOTE-045). https://ClinicalTrials.gov/show/NCT02256436. Accessed January 7, 2016.
  84. Clinicaltrials.gov. Study of pembrolizumab (MK-3475) in participants with advanced urothe- lial cancer (MK-3475-052/KEYNOTE-52). https://ClinicalTrials.gov/show/NCT02335424. Accessed January 7, 2016.
  85. Clinicaltrials.gov. Testing the PD-1 inhibitor pembrolizumab as maintenance therapy after initial chemotherapy in metastatic bladder cancer. https://ClinicalTrials.gov/show/NCT02500121. Accessed January 7, 2016.
  86. Clinicaltrials.gov. Study of pembrolizumab (MK-3475) in participants with high risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (MK-3475-057/KEYNOTE-057). https://ClinicalTrials.gov/show/NCT02625961. Accessed January 7, 2016.
  87. Clinicaltrials.gov. A Combination clinical study of PLX3397 and pembrolizumab to treat advanced melanoma and other solid tumors. https://ClinicalTrials.gov/show/NCT02452424. Accessed January 7, 2016.
  88. Clinicaltrials.gov. Avelumab in metastatic or locally advanced solid tumors (JAVELIN Solid Tumor). https://ClinicalTrials.gov/show/NCT01772004. Accessed January 7, 2016.
  89. Apolo AB, Infante JR, Hamid O, et al. Safety, clinical activity, and PD-L1 expression of avelum- ab (MSB0010718C), an anti-PD-L1 antibody, in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma from the JAVELIN Solid Tumor phase Ib trial. J Clin Oncol 2016;34:(suppl 2S; abstr 367).
  90. Clinicaltrials.gov. A study of avelumab in patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer (JAVELIN Bladder 100). https://ClinicalTrials.gov/show/ NCT02603432. Accessed January 7, 2016.
  91. Clinicaltrials.gov. A study of ALT-801 in combination with cisplatin and gemcitabine in muscle invasive or metastatic urothelial cancer. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01326871. January 7, 2016.
  92. Fishman MN, Vaena DA, Singh P, et al. Phase Ib/II study of an IL-2/T-cell receptor fusion protein in combination with gemcitabine and cisplatin in advanced or metastatic chemorefractory urothelial cancer (UC). J Clin Oncol 2015;33:(suppl; abstr 4515).
  93. Clinicaltrials.gov. A Study of ALT-801 in patients with bacillus calmette-guerin (BCG) failure non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01625260. Accessed January 7, 2016.
  94. Clinicaltrials.gov. A study of intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) in combination with ALT-803 in patients with BCG-naive non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02138734. Accessed January 7, 2016.
  95. Friedlander TW, Weinberg VK, Yeung A. Updated results of a phase I/II trial of intravesical CG0070 in patients with superficial bladder cancer after BCG failure. J Clin Oncol 2012;30:(suppl 5; abstr 271).
  96. Clinicaltrials.gov. Efficacy study of recombinant adenovirus for non muscle invasive bladder cancer (BOND). http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01438112. Accessed January 7, 2016.
  97. Clinicaltrials.gov. Safety and Efficacy of CG0070 Oncolytic Virus Regimen for High Grade Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer After BCG Failure (BOND2) http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02365818. Accessed January 7, 2016.
  98. Clinicaltrials.gov. Vaccine therapy with or without sirolimus in treating patients with NY-ESO-1 expressing solid tumors. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01522820. Accessed January 7, 2016.
  99. Clinicaltrials.gov. A Phase 1/2 Study of HS-410 in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer after TURBT. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02010203. Accessed January 7, 2016.
  100. Steinberg G, Shore N, Karsh L, et al. Phase I study of patients with non-muscle invasive blad- der cancer (NMIBC) treated with vesigenurtacel-L (HS-410) after Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2015; 3(Suppl 2):P447.
  101. Clinicaltrials.gov. Study of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) combined with PANVAC versus BCG alone in adults with high grade non-muscle invasive bladder cancer who failed at least 1 course of BCG. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02015104. Accessed October 1, 2014.
  102. Clinicaltrials.gov. Safety and efficacy study of cancer immunotherapeutic MAGE-A3 + AS-15 in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer after cystectomy (MAGNOLIA). http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01435356. Accessed October 1, 2014.
  103. Clinicaltrials.gov. Improving clinical staging for muscle invasive bladder cancer through mo- lecular profiling and improved imaging. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02203136. January 7, 2016.
  104. Clinicaltrials.gov. Biomarker identification for bladder cancer patients. http:// clinicaltrials. gov/ct2/show/NCT02053662. January 7, 2016.
  105. Clinicaltrials.gov. PET/MRI and biomarkers in bladder cancer (ACEBIB). http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01918592. Accessed January 7, 2016.
  106. Clinicaltrials.gov. Ultrasound and biomarker tests in predicting cancer aggressiveness in tis- sue samples of patients with bladder cancer. http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02494635. Accessed January 7, 2016.
  107. Clinicaltrials.gov. Basal like bladder cancer: signature and therapeutic. http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02648100. Accessed January 7, 2016.
  108. Clinicaltrials.gov. Collecting and studying blood and tissue samples from patients with locally recurrent or metastatic prostate or bladder/urothelial cancer. http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01050504. Accessed January 7, 2016.
Related Videos
Related Content