In an interview with <em>Targeted Oncology</em>, Benjamin Weinberg, MD, discussed the treatment options available for the various subpopulations in mCRC.<br />
Benjamin Weinberg, MD
Performing next-generation sequencing on patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and determining sidedness at the time off diagnosis is essential for understanding how to approach treatment for the various molecular subgroups seen in CRC, according to Benjamin Weinberg, MD.
“There are important subpopulations in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer and it's not just a monolithic entity,” explained Weinberg. “We need to be testing for these things. There are certain things we need to know upfront, includingRAS,BRAF, microsatellite instability, andHER2status. Even if we don’t use [the NGS] to guide therapy immediately, it would steer how I structure a sequencing of treatments.”
For patients withBRAFV600Emutant metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), for example, the BEACON study evaluated the triplet regimen of encorafenib (Braftovi), binimetinib (Mektovi), and cetuximab (Erbitux) versus encorafenib/cetuximab alone versus investigator’s choice of standard therapy with cetuximab plus either irinotecan or FOLFIRI. Results showed that the median overall survival for the triplet therapy was 9.0 months versus 5.4 months with the standard regimens, which translated to a 48% reduction in the risk of death (HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.39-0.70; 2 sidedP<.0001).
The FDA previously granted the triplet regimen a breakthrough therapy designation for the treatment of patients withBRAFV600Emutant mCRC as detected by an FDA-approved test, following failure of 1 or 2 prior lines of treatment.
In an interview withTargeted Oncology, Weinberg, assistant professor of medicine and attending physician, Georgetown University, discussed the treatment options available for the various subpopulations in mCRC.
TARGETED ONCOLOGY: How do you currently treat patients with mCRC in the first-line setting?
Weinberg: There are many treatment options for frontline mCRC. All of these typically involve fluoropyrimidine-containing chemotherapy, usually with the addition of oxaliplatin and/or irinotecan. The options for chemotherapy backbones include FOLFOX, CAPOX, FOLFIRI, CAPIRI, FOLFIRINOX, or CAPIRINOX, which typically have a biologic agent added to them. Patients also benefit from bevacizumab (Avastin), a VEGF-targeting therapy. For patients with left-sidedRASand BRAFwild-type tumors, we believe the benefit of an EGFR-directed antibody like cetuximab is beneficial in the frontline setting.
TARGETED ONCOLOGY: Could you expand on the different molecular subsets in CRC?
Weinberg: In mCRC, there are many different molecular genotypes that we need to be aware of. We thinkBRAFV600E is a bad mutation to have, but we have drugs that target BRAF, including the regimen using vemurafenib (Zelboraf) in combination with irinotecan and cetuximab and, more recently, the BEACON regimen of encorafenib, binimetinib, and cetuximab. These therapies are not in the upfront setting but are very useful in later-line settings and have shown benefit in patients who otherwise have a very poor prognosis.
We also are aware of patients who haveHER2amplification, which is mostly in rectal cancer. These patients may benefit from HER2-targeting therapiesnot necessarily the frontline setting, but in the later-line settings.
The other important groups we need to be aware of are the 4% of patients who have microsatellite instabilityhigh (MSI-H) tumors. Those patients benefit from immunotherapy with pembrolizumab (Keytruda) or nivolumab (Opdivo), or even a combination of nivolumab with the CTLA-4 inhibitor ipilimumab (Yervoy).
Finally, theNTRKstory has fully emerged and drugs, such as larotrectinib (Vitrakvi) and entrectinib (Rozlytrek), seem to benefit this very rare patient population that we need to be aware of; we need to look for those types of rare fusion events.
TARGETED ONCOLOGY: How frequently are these different subsets identified?
Weinberg: TheBRAFstory tends to be [found in] more right-sided colon cancers at around 5% to 15% [of patients], depending on where in the colon the tumor comes from. They are still pretty rare. MSI-H is even more rare, at about 4% of mCRC. The HER2story is very narrow, at about 5% of rectal cancer and less common throughout the colon. The NTRKstory is even rarer, at approximately 0.2% or 0.3% of all mCRC.
TARGETED ONCOLOGY: Could you expand on the targeted therapies used in these subsets?
Weinberg: As of now, we don't usually use much of these targeted therapies in the frontline setting. The ongoing ANCHOR trial is going to look at the BEACON regimen upfront for patients withBRAFV600Emutated mCRC. We eagerly await the results of those types of trials.
TheHER2story is going to be [explored in] more refractory disease. There are some ongoing trials that look into using immunotherapy upfront for the MSI-H population. The jury is still out [on immunotherapy], but in patients who are having trouble with frontline chemotherapy, it's very reasonable to move to one of these more targeted options.
TARGETED ONCOLOGY: How would you define the use of cetuximab?
Weinberg: We used to think that cetuximab only works in patients who haveRASand BRAFwild-type mCRC. For a long time, we have known that patients with right-sided CRCtumors that arise from the cecum, ascending colon, hepatic flexure, or beginning of the transverse colon—have a worse prognosis than patients who have mCRC that comes from left-sided and primary splenic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid, rectosigmoid, and rectum.
We also now know that even for patients withRASwild-type tumors, the EGFR-directed drugs only seem to work upfront in patients with left-sided primaries. I would be remiss to use anti-EGFR therapy on a patient with right-sided CRC until a much later-line setting and only in patients who are RASor BRAFwild-type, the exception being the BRAF V600Emutated patients. Now, we have these combination regimens that include cetuximab, but I wouldn't use EGFR-directed therapies without also inhibiting BRAF and/or MEK.
Tabernero J, A. Grothey A, Van Cutsem E, et al. Encorafenib plus cetuximab with or without binimetinib for BRAF V600Emutant metastatic colorectal cancer: expanded results from a randomized, 3-arm, phase III study vs. the choice of either irinotecan or FOLFIRI plus cetuximab (BEACON CRC).Ann Oncol.2019;30(suppl_5):v851-v934. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdz394.