Nivolumab plus cabozantinibreportedly improved health-related quality of life for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma when compared to treatment with sunitinib.
Nivolumab (Opdivo) plus cabozantinib (Cabometyx) reportedly improved health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma when compared to treatment with sunitinib (Sutent), according to an exploratory analysis of the phase 3 CheckMate 9ER trial presented at the 2021 ASCO Genitourinary Cancer Symposium.
Moreover, patients treated with the combination experienced a delay in deterioration and a significant decreased risk for confirmed deterioration in HRQoL scores, including disease-related kidney cancer symptoms.
“These results indicate that the superior clinical efficacy of (nivolumab plus cabozantinib) over (sunitinib) is accompanied by the additional benefit of better HQoL,” the researchers wrote. “Moreover, the HRQoL outcomes also support the acceptable tolerability profile of the (nivolumab plus cabozantinib) combination for patients with advanced HRQoL.”
In the CheckMate 9ER trial, after a median follow-up of 18.1 months, nivolumab plus cabozantinib demonstrated superior progression free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 0.51; P <.0001), overall survival (HR, 0.60; P = .001) and objective response rate (P <.0001), compared with sunitinib, in patients with advanced RCC with a clear cell component.
In their presentation, the researchers investigated patient-reported HRQoL outcomes further, including overall between-group comparisons of treatment groups and time to confirmed deterioration outcomes.
“In addition to the clinical outcomes, analyses of HRQoL, including time to confirmed deterioration in patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores may provide important insights for clinicians to assess the benefit/risk profile of potential new treatment regimens,” the researchers wrote.
To be eligible for the phase 3 trial, patients had to have previously untreated, advanced or metastatic RCC; a clear cell component; and any International Metastatic RCC Database Consortium (IMDC) risk. Patients were then stratified by IMDC risk score, tumor PD-L1 expression, and geographic region.
In total, patients were randomized 1:1 to receive either nivolumab at 240 mg IV every 2 weeks plus oral cabozantinib 40 mg daily (n = 323) or oral sunitinib at 50 mg daily for 4 weeks on, 2 weeks off (n = 328), until disease progression or toxicity.
PRO instruments were administered before treatment, and included Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Kidney Symptom Index-19 (FKSI-19) and the 3-level version of the EQ-5D (EQ-5D-3L). PRO completion rates for both arms were at 93% or more at baseline, and completion rates remained at 80% or more through week 91.
Longitudinal score changes from baseline in FKSI-19 total score and FKSI-19 disease-related symptom (DRS) scores favored nivolumab plus cabozantinib, compared to sunitinib, with an overall mean change from baseline of 2.90 (-0.51 vs -3.40; P <.0001) and 1.55 (+0.77 vs -0.78; P <.0001), respectively.
Mean change in EQ-5D-3L utility index and visual analog scale (VAS) scores also favored nivolumab plus cabozantinib, showing significant change through treatment with an overall change of 0.05 (-0.02 vs -0.07; P = .0005) and 3.26 (+2.02 vs -1.24; P = .0011), respectively, with the combination versus sunitinib.
There was also a significant decreased risk of confirmed deterioration with nivolumab plus cabozantinib in FKSI-19 total score (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.50-0.81; P = .0003) and FKSI-19 DRS score (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.46-0.82; P = .0006).