Metastatic Prostate Cancer: Case 1 - Episode 5
Bernie presents with NCCN intermediate-risk prostate cancer. He did very well with the initial therapy; however, a pelvic lymph node signaled recurrence of the disease. This lymph node was likely involved when he had his initial treatment. It took nearly 7 years for it to become detectable both by CT scan and by an elevated PSA level. Had Bernie chosen a radical prostatectomy, a lymph node dissection would likely have identified microscopic disease. Bernie had a second good response to hormonal therapy; however, over the ensuing several years, castrate-resistant disease evolved. The next test that would influence his treatment would be a bone scan. Stratification of men with prostate cancer into risk groups is essential to guide management.
CASE 1: Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (mCRPC)
Bernie H. is a 75-year-old retired restaurant manager from Queens, New York, who now lives part time in Boca Raton, Florida. He and his wife enjoy boating and fishing.
His prior medical history is notable for mild COPD, which is well controlled with salbutamol, and for arthritis, with total knee replacement in 2007
In 2004, he presented to his PCP with symptoms of nocturia × 3. A suspicious digital rectal examination and elevated PSA of 9 mg/mL was noted
12 core biopsies revealed prostate adenocarcinoma of Gleason grade 7 (4 + 3) in 6 of 12 cores on the right side; he was treated with brachytherapy and a short course of 4 months of ADT. Within 6 months, his PSA had declined to undetectable levels (<.02 ng/mL). No further PSA testing was performed until 2011
In December 2011, the patient’s PSA was noted to be 12 ng/mL.
Patient was asymptomatic at the time; however, a pelvic CT scan showed an enlarged right iliac lymph node measuring 2.3 cm × 2.2 cm; biopsy of the lesion was consistent with prostate adenocarcinoma
Bone scan at the time was negative
The patient was started on ADT with 3 months of depot leuprolide and bicalutamide, and his PSA reached a nadir of <.02 ng/mL; testosterone level was <10 ng/mL
The patient was asymptomatic, and PSA was monitored every 3 months. His PSA slowly rose from the nadir over the next 4 years in spite of ADT
His liver function tests were unremarkable
By March of 2015, the patient had experienced 2 consecutive rises in PSA, first to 16 ng/mL, and then to 27 ng/mL; his testosterone level was <20 ng/dL.
CT scan again detected enlargement of the prior iliac lymph node to 2.5 cm × 2.4 cm, and Bernie’s physician confirmed a diagnosis of mCRPC in 2 additional lymph nodes
The patient remains asymptomatic, and his oncologist has ascertained progression of his disease